For a complete overview of everything Pictish that is published before 1995, see:

  • Eric H. Nicoll (ed.), A Pictish Panorama: the story of the Picts and a Pictish bibliography, Balgavies, 1995.


J.J. Aillagon, U. Roberto & Y. Rivière (ed.), Rome and the Barbarians: The Birth of a New World, Milaan, 2008.

A.O. Anderson & M.O. Anderson, Adomnán’s Life of Columba, Oxford, 1991.

M. Carver, Portmahomack: Monastery of the Picts, , Edinburgh, 2008.

W.A. Cummins, The Age of the Picts, Stroud, 1995.

W.A. Cummins, The Picts and their Symbols, Stroud, 1999.

W.A. Cummins, The Lost language of the Picts, Balgavies, 2001.

W.A. Cummins, Decoding the Pictish symbols, Stroud, 2009.

S.T. Driscoll, Jane Geddes & Mark A. Hall (ed.), Pictish progress: new studies on northern Britain in the Middle Ages, Leiden, 2011.

J.E. Ericson, O. Dersch & F. Rauch, ‘Quartz hydration dating’, in:  Journal of Archaeological Science, 31 (2004), 883-902.

I. Fraser (ed.), The Pictish symbol stones of Scotland, Edinburgh, 2008.

I. Forsyth, ‘Language in Pictland: spoken and written’ in: E. H. Nicoll & K. Forsyth (ed.), Pictish Panorama: the story of the Picts, Balgavies, 1995.

I. Forsyth, ‘Some thoughts on Pictish symbols as a formal Writing System’, in: D. Henry (ed.) The worm, the germ and the thorn: Pictish and related studies presented to Isabel Henderson, Balgavies, 1997, 85-98.

I. Forsyth, Language in Pictland: the case against ‘non-Indo-European Pictish’, Utrecht, 1997.

P. Fouracle (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 1 (c.500 – c.700), Oxford, 2007.

I. Fraser, The Pictish Symbol Stones of Scotland, Edinburgh, 2008.

J.E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland, Scotland to 795, Edinburgh, 2009.

J.E. Fraser, ‘From ancient Scythia to The Problem of the Picts: thoughts on the quest for Pictish origins’ in: S. T. Driscoll, J. Geddes and M. A. Hall (ed.), Pictish Progress: New studies on northern Britain in the early middle ages, Leiden, 2011, 15-44.

W. Ferguson, ‘George Buchanan and the Picts’, in: Scottish Tradition, 16 (1990-1991), 18-32.

I. Gilbert, The Symbolism of the Pictish Stones in Scotland: a study of Origins, Dorchester, 1995.

J.A. Giles, The Works of Gildas and Nennius, London, 1923.

I. Henderson, The Picts, London, 1967.

I. Henderson, ‘Pictish art and the Book of Kells’, in: R. McKitterick & D. N. Dumville (ed.), Ireland in early medieval Europe: studies in memory of Kathleen Hughes, Cambridge, 1982, 79-105.

I. Henderson, ‘The implications of the Staffordshire hoard of the understanding of the origins and development of the Insular art as it appears in manuscripts and sculpture’, in: H. Geake (ed.), Papers from the Staffordshire Hoard Symposium, London, 2010.

I. Henderson, The Ogham inscription of Scotland: an edited corpus, Cambridge, 1996.

G. Henderson & I. Henderson, The art of the Picts: sculpture and metalwork in early medieval Scotland, London, 2004.

J. Higgitt, ‘The Pictish Latin inscription at Tarbat in Ross-shire’, in: Proceedings of the Society of antiquaries of Scotland, 112 (1982), 300-321.

J. Higgitt, K. Forsyth & D. Parsons (ed.), Roman, Runes and Ogham: medieval inscriptions in the insular world and on the continent, Donington, 2001.

J. Higgitt & R. Spearman, The Age of Migrating Ideas: Early Medieval Art in Northern Britain and Ireland: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Insular Art History, Edinburgh, 1991.

R. Hutton, Pagan Britain, New Haven, 2013.

A. Jackson, Na-Khi Religion: An Analytical Appraisel of the Na-Khi Ritual Texts, The Hague, 1979.

A. Jackson, The Symbol Stones of Scotland: a social anthropological resolution of the problem of the Picts, Stromness,1984.

A. Jackson, The Pictish Trail: A travellers guide to the old Pictish kingdoms, Kirkwall, 1989.

A. Jackson, The Faroes: Faraway Islands, London, 1991.

A. Jackson, Pictish symbol stones?, Edinburgh, 1993.

K. Jackson, ‘The Pictish Language’, in: F.T. Wainwright (ed.), The problem of the Picts, London, 1955, 129-166.

M. Lapidge & D. Dumville (ed.), Gildas: New Approaches, Woodbridge, 1984.

W.F.H Nicolaisen, Scottish Place-Names, Edinburgh, 2001.

C.E.V Nixon & B.S. Rodgers, In praise of later Roman emperors: the Panegyrici Latini: introduction, translation and historical commentary with the Latin text of R.A.B. Mynors, Berkeley, 1994.

E. Peterson, The Message of Scotland’s Symbol Stones, Aberuthven, 1996.

William Reeves, Life of Saint Columba, Founder of Hy, Written by Adamnan, Ninth Abbot of that Monastery, Edinburgh, 1874.

G. Rhys, Approaching the Pictish language: historiography, early evidence and the question of Pritenic, Glasgow, 2015.

A. Ritchie, Perceptions of the Picts: from Eumenius to Joh Buchan, Rosemarkie, 1994.

J. Romilly Allen & J. Anderson, The early Christian monument of Scotland, 2 vols., Balgavies (reprint of the Edition Edinburgh 1903), 1993.

R. Samson (ed.), Social approaches to Viking studies, Glasgow, 1991.

R. Samson, ‘The reinterpretation of the Pictish Symbols’, in: Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 145 (1991), 29-65.

J. Stuart, The sculptured stones of Scotland, 2 vols., Aberdeen, 1856-1857.

C. Thomas‘Animal Art in the Scottish Iron Age’, in: Archaeological Journal, 118 (1961), 14-64.

C. Thomas,The interpretation of the Pictish Symbols’,in: Archaeological Journal, 120 (1963), 31-64.

T. Wainwright (ed.), The problem of the Picts, London, 1955.

A. Woolf, From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070, Edinburgh, 2007.

A. Woolf, ‘On the nature of the Picts’, in: The Scottish Historical Review, 96 (2017), 214-217.

Wyatt North Publishing, History of the English People, Boston, 2014.

Places to visit, websites and organisations

National Museum of Scotland:

National Library of Scotland:

The Pictish Arts Society:

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland:

The national trust of Scotland:

The Strathclyde Pictish Stone Database: